Sunday, July 29, 2012

Dictionary of Buddhism

The section of Buddhist scriptures concerned with philosophical, cosmological and psychological analysis. An explanation of the appearance of all phenomena. E.g. the parts of our personality as five accumulations (skt. Skandhas), the origins of perceptions (skt. Ayatanas) and the basic elements of existence (skt.: dhatus). Abhidharma is one of the Three Baskets.



Accumulations, Two Positive impressions or merit - e.g. from meaningful actions - and wisdom have to be connected in a inseparable way on the Buddhist path.

Activity In a general sense it means acting for the benefit of all beings. In an ultimately sense the spontaneous and effortless acting of a Buddha for the benefit of all beings.

Aeon Kalpa

Almighty Ocean [Tib. Gyalwa Gyamtso, Skt. Jinasagara] Red, sitting four-armed form of Loving Eyes in Union.

A general Buddhist altar consists of several groups of objects. Most important are the three objects representing Buddhas body, speech and mind. They constitute a basic altar. The first of these objects is a statue of Buddha or of a Bodhisattva. It is placed in the center. Second object is a sacred text. It represents Buddhas speech, is wrapped in maroon or yellow cloth and is placed on the left side. On the right side of the altar a Stupa as a symbol of Buddhas mind is located. For all of these objects pictures may be used as substitutes. In addition pictures of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Lamas and Protectors can be arranged around these three objects. In Diamond Way Buddhism the central aspect is the Lama or Teacher. Around him other Buddha aspects, the so-called Yidam and Protectors can be arranged. The second group concerns offerings. In most cases seven bowls are used. They contain offerings made to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. The bowls are arranged in a straight line and contain (from the left to the right as one faces the altar): Bowl with water to drink (represents the purity of mind) Bowl with water for washing (represents the purity of the body) Rice and flowers (represents the beauty of sight) Rice and incense (represents the pervasiveness of the Dharma) Candle (represents illumination: darkness is ignorance, brightness is wisdom) Fragrant water (represents devotion) Rice and food (fruits or sweets) (offered as a gesture of gratitude) Sometimes a conch shell or a Ting-shag is offered (represents the awakening of beings hearing the Dharma) As a third group Tormas, Dorje, Bell, a crystal ball and other objects can be used. Either permanently ore only during special rituals. The altar should be on a higher place.

The Buddha of Limitless Light. 

Amitayus [tib. Tse pa me]
The Buddha of Boundless Life.

The highest of the four levels of Diamond Way teachings.

One who has "conquered the enemy", that is, "the emotions and ignorance that keep one locked in Samsara". The Arhat represents the goal of the Theravada tradition, one who has experienced the cessation of suffering, the state of liberation.

Highest realization in Theravada. Calm state of mind, in which complete liberation from suffering of the conditioned world is accomplished.

Demi-Gods of the desire-realm are called Asuras.

Avalokiteshvara Loving Eyes Awareness

Literally, "between two". In general, any interval, "a between". Six bardos are usually spoken of in theDiamond Way teachings: The Death Process. The interval from the moment when the individual begins to die until the moment when the separation of the mind and body takes place. The Cho Nyi Bardo. The interval of the ultimate nature of phenomena (the Dharmadata), when the mind is plunged into its own nature. The first phase of the after-death experience. The Bardo of Becoming. The interval in which the mind moves towards rebirth. The Bardo between Birth and Death. Ordinary waking consciousness during the present lifetime. Dream. The dream state we experience in sleep. Meditative Concentration. The state of meditative stability. In the west "bardo" is usually referred to only the first three of these, that is, the states between death and rebirth. These states are no more and no less illusory than dreams and ordinary waking consciousness.

Bardo Meditation
Intermediate State Meditation

Baskets, three
[Skt. Tripitaka, Tib. de n̦ sum): Collections of Buddhas teachings in the three groups of Vinaya Рthe teachings of proper conduct, Sutra Рthe teachings on meditation practise, Abidharma Рthe wisdom teachings.

Beads are used to count Mantras. A Mala consist of 108 Beads.

Bearer of the Black Coat
[Tib. Bernagchen] Main protector of the Karma Kagyu lineage.

Paired with the vajra the bell represents wisdom, and as wisdom and method are an undivided unity so the Dorje and and bell are mostly employed together. Its base must be round, above which is a vase surmounted by the face of Prajnaparamita. Above these are a lotus, a moon disc and finally a vajra. The hollow of the bell symbolizes the wisdom recognizing emptiness. The clapper represents the sound of emptiness. The vase represents the vase containing the nectar of accomplishment.

Bearer of Black Coat.

Bhumi [Lit. "ground"] The path of a Bodhisattva consists of ten levels. They reach from liberation to complete enlightenment. The recognition of the true nature of phenomena is deepened on these levels and is more and more experienced even outside meditation. The ten levels are: 1. The Supremely joyful 2. The Immaculate 3. The Illuminating 4. The Radiant 5. Very Difficult to practice 6. The one which becomes manifest 7. The Far Gone 8. The Immovable 9. Excellent Intelligence, Awareness 10. Cloud of Dharma 

Black Coat
Bearer of Black Coat. Black Crown Attribute of the Karmapa. Signifying the power to help all beings, the female Buddhas bestowed this energyfield on Karmapa at his enlightenment several thousand years ago. It is constantly above his head. It is only visible for beings on high spiritual levels. The replica shown at ceremonies has the power to open the subconscious of those present and permits the Karmapa to exchange his limitless space-awareness for beings' inhibitions and pain. It is a means for gaining liberation through seeing which only a Karmapa can use.

According to tibetan texts it is a strong means to transfer spritiual maturity. This is possible because of the inseparability of space and joy everywhere and the fact that everyone has the Buddhanature. In Diamondway the teacher in this way can give the disciple an insight in mind's nature if the disciple has openness and devotion.

[Lit. Dorje Seat] A place near the town of Patna in northern India. Here the historical BuddhaShakyamuni reached complete enlightenment . Bodhgaya is regarded as the most important pilgrim place for Buddhists. 

Bodhi Tree
[Lit. Tree of awakening] A poplar tree under which Buddha sat when he attained Enlightenment. The actual tree is a offshoot of the original tree. It was re-imported from Sri Lanka.

Enlightened Mind

Bodhisattva [tib. Djang Chub Sempa] The ideal in Mahayana, where the Diamondway belongs to. In a common sense someone who gave the Bodhisattva Promise. Someone who made the decision to reach completeEnlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings. In a special sense a Bodhisattva already attainedliberation from suffering und thus has reached one of the ten levels of a Bodhisattva.

 Bodhisattva Level
 Bhumi .

Bodhisattva Promise
The promises to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings. The promise is given in the presence of a Bodhisattva and is repeated as often as possible, to strengthen motivation.

 [Tib. Damtsig, Skt. Samaya] The basis for the rapid spiritual growth in Diamond Way Buddhism. Through the unbroken connection to teacher, meditation forms and co-disciples with whom one has taken initiations has gotten teachings, students quickly manifest their potential. Especially the bond to one's first teacher is very important.

 [Tib. Sangye, Lit. The awakened one or the enlightened one] The name denotes a state of mind. "Sang" means "completely purified" of all obscurations. "Gye" means "completely unfoldment" of all qualities andwisdom . The Buddha of our time is the historical Buddha Shakyamuni. He is the fourth of the 1000 Buddhas of our eon.

 Buddha Activity
 All in all there are four activities of a Buddha : Pacifying, increasing, fascinating, powerful-protecting. 

Buddha Aspect
 [Tib. Yidam] Meditation aspect: Buddha taught this meditation forms in the Tantras. They express a particular quality of the enlightened nature of our own mind. The richness of the enlightened mind expresses itself in various forms of energy and light. By identifying with them - in meditation and daily life - they awake quickly our immanentBuddha-Nature. The Yidam is a personal meditation aspect. It is the Buddha aspect to whom one has the closest connection. The practise of this aspect is the fastest way to reach enlightenment. To meditate on a Buddha Aspect one has to get an initiation from a Lama holding this transmission.

 Buddha Dharma Center
 During his teachings in the West Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche gained more and more western students, which visit him from time to time. To accommodate them and his local students Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche founded the Buddha Dharma Center. It is a place where students can get in contact with Mahayana-Buddhism. This goes for lay and ordained-people as well.

 Buddha Energies
 Buddha aspects

 Buddha Families
 [tib. Gyalwa rig nga, sanskr. panca tathagata, 5 Dhyani-Buddhas] All the Buddha aspects taught by theBuddha can be summed up into five groups or families. These in turn can be summed up into the Buddha Diamond Holder. This is the tantric form of Buddha Shakyamuni.

 Buddha Nature
 [Skt. Tathagatagarba] All beings have the Buddha nature. It is the base for Enlightenment. As long as a being is not enlightened, the Buddha nature is covered by veils. Such a being is called a "sentient being". When these veils are purified and the pure essence of Buddha nature is experienced, enlightenment is attained. Like milk already has the potential to become butter, every being has the potential to attain enlightenment. Buddha nature is identical with The Kayas.

 Buddha Shakyamuni
 [560 - 478 B.C.] This is the name of the historical Buddha. Born as "Siddharta Gautama" he was called "Shakyamuni" after attaining enlightenment. Shakyamuni means: "The sage of the Shakya clan".

 Buddha of Limitless Light [Tib. Öpame, Skr. Amitabha] His mental realm is the pure land of highest bliss. 

Buddha of Limitless Life
 [tib. Tsepame, skr. Amitayus] Represents a long life and helth. Is an emanation of Buddha of limitless light in joy-state.

 Buddha Wisdom, five
 The facets of the one Buddha wisdom: 1. The value-free mirror like wisdom, without fabrications 2. Wisdom of equality, seeing the pure potential in other beings 3. Discrimination wisdom 4. All accomplishing wisdom 5. Dharmadhatu wisdom (Buddha wisdom)

 The state of comlpete Enlightenment .This state is denoted by fearlessness, joy and active compassion. Buddhahood is the recognition of the open and clear boundlessness of mind.

 The teachings of the historical Buddha, Siddharta Gautama, are the basis of what is called 'Buddhism'. Buddhism can be subdivided into The Way of the Older Ones (Theravada), Great Way (Mahayana) andDiamond Way (Vajrayana).


 The Tibetan calendar is divided into major cycles of sixty years duration. These sixty-year cycles are divided into five minor twelve-year cycles, each year of which is identified by the name of an animal: 1. Rabbit 2. Dragon 3. Snake 4. Horse 5. Sheep 6. Monkey 7. Bird 8. Dog 9. Pig 10. Mouse 11. Ox 12. Tiger. Two consecutive years are paired with one of the five elements. As there are: 1. Fire 2. Earth 3. Iron 4. Water 5. Wood The first year of an element is called "male", the second one "female".So one gets i.e. a male Earth Dragon Year, followed by a female Earth Snake Year, followed by a male Iron Horse Year and so on. After 60 years the combinations are repeated and the cycle is closed. The calendar was introduced in 1027 starting with the Fire Rabbit Year. The 16th cycle ended 1986 with a Fire Tiger Year. Thus we're living in the 17th cycle. According to Tsurphu-tradition the Earth Ox year lasts until 02/13/2010. Beginning with 2/14/2010 we live in the Iron Tiger year. The Tibetan year is based on twelve lunar months and lasts 360 days. To keep pace with the solar year (365.25 days) every 3 years a leap month is added. There is an intelligent calculation which month will be the leap month. This certain month is simply repeated. In 1997 the fifth month of the Fire Ox Year was repeated. Depending on the exact change of the days 5 (or 6) days in the Tibetan Year are left out, if the change comes later and happen twice, if the change comes earlier. In order to transform a date from the Western Calendar into a date of the Tibetan Calendar and vice versa, the most precise calendar is the "Tibetan Calendar of the Tsurphu Tradition", developed by the 3. Karmapa Rangjung Dorje. Due to the leap month the New Year's Day (Losar) of the Tibetan Calendar moves between February and March. The month starts with the new crescent and full moon is on the 15th.

 Chagya Chenpo

 Highest Joy.

 Changchub Dorje [1703-1732] The twelfth Karmapa, Changchub Dorje was born at Chile Chakhor in Derge province in east Tibet. Shamarpa heard talk of the doings of a remarkable child, and sent a party to investigate. His envoys brought the child to Karma Gon, one of Karmapa's principal monasteries, where he met Shamarpa Palchen Chokyi Dondrub. The two were to spend the rest of their lives together, travelling and teaching in Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, India and China. Only one day separated their deaths. Both gave Kagyu transmission to the eighth Situpa, and declared him to be the next lineage holder.

 Chang Chub Kyi Sem
 Enlightened Mind

 Channa Dorje
 Diamond-holder Power Buddha

 Loving Eyes


 Chodrag Gyamtso [1454 - 1506] The seventh Karmapa, Chodrag Gyamtso, was from Kyilha in Northern Tibet. Wiping his face immediately after birth, he is reported to have said "AH", the Sanskrit syllable symbolising the ultimate nature of reality. The nearby Nyewo Ngarteng Monastery was headed by one Cho Paljor, a student of the sixth Karmapa, who had a dream that his teacher had taken rebirth at Kyilha. He searched, and found the week-old child. The baby immediately recognised the possessions of the sixth Karmapa, and placed his hands in blessing on Cho Paljor's head. Seven weeks later, Chodrag Gyamtso was brought to Arik Thang, where Tongwa Donden had taught, and where there was a vast seat, like a throne, made of stone slabs. He blessed the ten thousand who had come to welcome him. At four, he was given a series of empowerments by Goshir Paljor Dondrup, and at eight, at Karma Gon, he was given the Kagyu teachings from Bengar Jampal Zangpo and Goshir Paljor Dondrub. He was invited to teach and give empowerments throughout Tibet; during his travels he wrote many texts and commentaries, and attended to the development of the many students who travelled with him. These tent-dwelling nomads - said to be several thousand strong - led a rigorous life, following a strict schedule of study and meditation laid down by the Karmapa. While at Nyriro Dong Tse, he met the fourth Shamarpa, to whom he gave the full teachings. Another of his students, Denma Drubchen Tashi Paljor, was to become the next lineage holder.

 Chokhor Duchen
 Name of the day where Buddha started his teachings.

 Chokyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo
 [1453 - 1524] The Fourth Shamarpa was born in the Treshö province of Kham in eastern Tibet. Wondrous signs manifested at his birthplace in Tre Kangmar, with wide ranging interpretations by the local communities. The Seventh Karmapa Chodrag Gyamtso was seven years old when he set up camp near Kangmar and remained in retreat while he sent his attendant to invite the Shamarpa. This learned monk was Paljor Döndrup - the first Gyaltsab Rinpoche, a man of exceptional realisation. He was later to become a Guru to the Shamarpa. When the Karmapa and the Shamarpa met it was the renewal of a very close bond, comparable to the joyful reunion of father and son. The Karmapa enthroned the young Shamarpa under the name of Chökyi Drakpa Yeshe Pal Zangpo and returned the red crown to him. The Karmapa proposed that from then on they both propagate the Dharma, but in different parts of the country. The Shamarpa would remain in the Kongpo area of southern Tibet, while the Karmapa continued towards eastern Kham. Some years later, they were together again at Treshö Kangmar. The Shamarpa arrived laden with offerings and the Karmapa imparted to him the empowerments of Mahamudra, the Six Yogas of Naropa and many other important instructions of the Kagyu lineage.

 Chopal Yeshe
 [1406 - 1452] The Third Shamarpa was only five months old and had no difficulty recognizing many of the monks who were close to him in his previous incarnations, which suggested that he was the incarnate for whom they all anxiously awaited. A year later he visited Takse monastery at the invitation of its monks. It had been one of the Shamarpa's monasteries in previous centuries. He studied there under the tutelage of two great Scholars - Paly�¼l Chözang and Wön Drakpa. At the age of eight, he met with the Fifth Karmapa Deshin Shegpa and stayed with him while he received all the Kagyu teachings including numerous empowerments and ritual readings. At this time, the Karmapa gave the Shamarpa full authorization to instruct. As his extraordinary clairvoyant abilities emerged, the fame of the Third Shamarpa spread rapidly into China. The Shamarpa could see his own past lives in vivid detail and this intrigued the Chinese Emperor. The fact that the Shamarpa had been the Guru of the Fifth Karmapa in his previous incarnation also fueled the wish for a closer relationship. The Emperor sent a minister to a distant part of Tibet bearing gifts for the Shamarpa. Statues of the Buddha and Dorje Chang arrived made of the finest bell metal and the Shamarpa communicated the importance of generosity in a letter of thanks. When the Shamarpa later ruled as the Karmapa's representative in Kong-Po and other provinces in southern Tibet, he kept this basic Buddhist principle in mind when attending to the needs of the people.


 Choying Dorje
 [1604-1674] The tenth Karmapa, Choying Dorje, was born at Khaytri Tang inGolok province, in the far north-east of Tibet. He was identified as the reincarnation and enthroned by the sixth Shamarpa, Chokyi Wangchuk, who also gave him the full Kagyu transmission. The Karmapa travelled throughout Tibet, teaching and promoting the welfare of the people, until certain political difficulties arose. Ngawang Lozang Gyamtso, the fifth Dalai Lama, had become the official ruler of Tibet, a role that would continue to be filled by his successive incarnations. He established a pact with the Mongol ruler Goshir Khan; the ensuing sectarian persecution severely weakened Kagyu doctrine in Tibet, and placed the Karmapa in such a difficult position that he was forced to leave the country. Travelling through Nepal and Burma to Yunnan in China, Choying Dorje made virtue of necessity and founded monasteries along his route. Twenty years were to pass before he could return to his homeland. He identified the seventh Shamarpa, Yeshe Nyingpo, and with the transmission of the Kagyu teachings, selected him as lineage holder.

 Cho Ku
 State of Truth Cho

Nyi Bardo

 Clear Light Expression of the not conditioned nature of phenomena, pervading Samsara and Nirvana. Appears during the death process and can then, especially as a result of former experiences in meditation, be recognized as the own nature.

 Clear Light Meditation
 [Tib. Osel] One of the Six Teachings of Naropa.

 It denotes the attitude that the benefit of other beings is more important to us than our own. Compassion is always paired with love. While compassion stands for the wish that other beings may be free from suffering and free from the cause of suffering, love stands for the wish that all beings may be happy. There are several means to develop compassion (Enlightened Mind). In Mahayana and Diamond Way Buddhism the development of compassion is very important. Wisdom and compassion are inseparable in Mahayana Buddhism. The development of wisdom leads us to the realization of emptiness. The 16th Karmapa Rangjung Rigpe Dorje said: "The true nature of emptiness is compassion. Without experiencing the wealth of compassion it means nothing, when somebody claims to have recognized emptiness."

 Completion Phase
 [Tib. dzog rim]: Meditation phase in Diamondway-Buddhism where the Buddha aspect melts into us. It is a direct meditation on the nature of mind to accomplish deep insights.

 Conditioned Existence
 Synonym for the cycle of existence or Samsara

 Consciousness Operation mode of mind when it is geared to an object. This means that someone is conscious of something or conscious of an aspect of mind. In the Great Way usually eight types of consciousness are taught: Consciousness of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, thinking, ego and the all-base consciousness.

 Consciousness, Stream of
 The not interrupted sequence of clear and conscious moments of experience, continuing thru this life, thru death and rebirth and all future lives.

 [Tib. yum] Female Buddha aspect in union with a male aspect (Tib. yab). She expresses wisdom which is inseparable from method or compassion.

 There are different cosmologies in Buddhism. Theravada, Mahayana, Kalachakra and Mahamudra got different ways to view and explain the world. The extent of the world is different, too. All those explanations are quite different from today's astrophysical point of view. In the cosmology of the Theravada there is only one world. Our one. In the center of the world lies mount Meru with mountain ranges and four main continents surrounding this mountain. The southern continent 'Jambu' (India) is the place where we all live. The other continents are inhabited too, but Jambu is the only place where beings can mature. In doing good things the Karma of the beings can be filled up with good impressions. Without beginning or end world after world is created and destroyed by the Karma of sentient beings. In the cosmology of the Mahayana the structure of the world (Meru, four main continents) is equal to the world of the Theravada. But there is not only one world, there is an infinite number of worlds. They are arranged in a hierarchical way. Ordinary worlds are created by Karma, the so-called Pure Lands, the powerfields of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, are created by their compassion. Here too there was never a beginning in space and time. WorldsOrdinary worlds are created and destroyed until all beings are liberated from the sufferings of cyclic existence. The cosmology of the Kalachakra contains a slightly different description of the world. This cosmology is concerned with the integration of macrocosm and microcosm into a coherent system. It also includes an astrological system. In Mahamudra there is actually no cosmology. One speaks of a 'Non-Cosmology'. In the cosmologies mentioned above Karma is the cause for the creation and destruction of the worlds. Mahamudra defines the universe as primordial purity. Everything experienced is only an expression of the pure state of mind.

 Creation Phase
 Creation of the inner imagination of a Buddha aspect in Diamondway Buddhism. Used mainly to develop a calm mind and clarity.

 Crown Ceremony


 [Tib. Khandroma, lit.: The one who moves in space]: Female enlightened wisdom being. A Dakini gives inspiration and protection and performs perfect Buddha activities. She often appears as protector or bearer of teachings.

 Dalai Lama
 The Dalai Lama is the political leader of the Tibetan government in exile. He is a high monk of the Gelug school of tibetan buddhism. The head of the Gelugpa is Ganden Thripa Rinpoche, the throne-holder of the monastery Ganden.


 Damzigpas Protector

 Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen
 Dangma Lhungyel Gyeltsen is an emanation of Drime Shenyen (Vimalamitra). He had a vision of the Dharma protector Dorje Legpa which allowed him to find the Dharma teachings which had been hidden by Nyang Tingdsin Sangpo (Phowa Lineage). Fifteen years after the discovery of the teachings, he looked for a suitable student to whom he could transfer his experience. He chose Jetsun Senge Wangtschug.

 Bodhisattva levels, the ten stages of the Bodhisattva realization. Bhumi

 The breakup of the material components of the person. For the experienced practioneer it is the opportunity to recognise the clear light, the true nature of mind and to reach liberation. When dying one enters the Bardos of death, dharmata and rebirth. First comes the process of dying itself. Afterwards, a period follows wherein mind continues its habitual flow from the previous life. After recognizing that one is actually dead, a process of restructuring takes place and, depending on the dominant state, mind enters a new realm among the six levels of existence. To get a detailed description of the Bardos of death, dharmadata and rebirth, more 

Deshin Shegpa
 [1384 - 1415] Deshin Shegpa, the fifth Karmapa was born in the Nyang Dam region of Soutern Tibet, immediately sitting up, wiping his face, and declaring "I am the Karmapa - Om Mani Peme Hung Shri". Rinchen Pal, the secretary to the third Karmapa, who identified and became secretary to the fourth Karmapa, also located this child, and in due course served him as secretary for the third time. Deshin Shegpa was brought to Tsawa Phu in Kongpo where a significant number of the fourth Karmapa's disciples were living. Shamar Kacho Wangpo Kacho Wangpo immediately recognised the child as the incarnation of Rolpe Dorje, and presented him with the Black Crown and other possessions of the fourth Karmapa. He went on to give the Karmapa the full cycle of Kagyu teachings. This Karmapa was a famous traveller, teaching throughout Tibet, Mongolia and China, where he was invited by the Emperor, Tai Ming Chen, who eagerly became a student of Deshin Shegpa. Returning to Tibet after some years, Karmapa built many shrines and stupas, and continued to teach and give empowerments. He found the next Shamar reincarnation, Chopal Yeshe, arranged his ordination, and gave him the Kagyu transmission. The next lineage holder, however, was his student Ratnabhadra.

 Dewachen Realm of Great Joy, powerfield of the Buddha of Limitless Light (Amitabha).

 Dhagpo Kagyu Ling Public
Meditation and Study Centre. This centre was founded in 1975 by the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa. Great Tibetan masters and western lamas give teachings here which are open to a large public of Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike. At the heart of the centre is an Institute (currently being developed) for the tradition's preservation and transmission, housing a large library and serving as a place of study, research and exchange. Dhagpo Kagyu Ling is the mother centre for many smaller centres throughout France and Europe. more 

 [Tib. Cho, Lit.: "As things are"] The buddhist teachings. One distinguishes the Dharma of teachings - the so called three baskets - and the dharma of accomplishment - the three types of training: right conduct, right meditation and right wisdom. But there are still more meanings of Dharma: The most important is "phenomenon".

 Dharma, Wheel of
 Complete cycle of Buddhas teachings. They are available for the whole coming eon. All in all Buddha turned the wheel three times, according the abilities of the students. See the three ways.

 The realm of all phenomena, the space in which all transpires.

 State of Truth

 The fundamental nature of all phenomena, the essence of reality.

 [Tib. Dorje, Skt. Vajra] Symbol of the indestructibility and preciousness of the true nature of mind. 

Diamond Dagger
 [Tib. Dorje Purbha, Skt. Vajrakilaya] Wrathful embodiment of Diamond Mind and important activity of the Buddhas.

 Diamond-holder Power Buddha
 [Tib. Channa Dorje, Skt. Vajrapani] The power and energy of all Buddhas. 

 Diamond Mind 
 [Tib. Dorje Sempa, Skt. Vajrasattva] Embodying the cleaning power of all Buddhas. Joy-state of Buddha Akshobya. In the Nyingma tradition Diamond-Mind represents the "State of Joy": Out of the formless "State of Truth" two states manifest spontaneously in order to help sentient beings. One of them is the "Joy-State" or Sambhogakaya. The "State of Joy" exists to help those beings whose minds have already been largely purified, namely the Bodhisattvas. (see also Phowa Lineage) 

 Diamond Mind in Union 
 [Tib. Dorje Sempa yab yum] Diamondmind in Union with his consort Njema. Main meditation aspect of the Nyingma school. 

 Diamond Paunch [Tib. Dorje Drollö] Wrathful aspect of Guru Rinpoche. 

 Diamond Sutra 

 Diamond Way [Tib. Dorje Thegpa, Skt. Vajrayana] Methods basing on the motivation and philosophy of the Great Way (Mahayana). However these methods have an independent view, conduct and meditation practice. The Diamondway can only be practised with the willingness to see all phenomena on a pure level. Today Diamondway is identical with the practise-orientated schools of Tibetan Buddhism and the Mantra- or Tantra-Vehicle. The most important distinction to the great way are the powerful methods of identification with enlightenment. 

 Disturbing Emotions 
[Tib. nyn mong, Skt. kleshas] Also called " suffering causing mental states". These are mainly ignorance, attachment, aversion, pride, envy and jealousy. Together with negative actions they constitute the cause for all suffering in the cycle of existence. 

 Dölkar White Liberatice 

 Dölma Green Liberatice 

 [Skt.Vajra, Lit.: Diamond, Thunderbolt, Lord of Stones] A symbol for indestructibility and insurmountability derived from the Hindu mythology. The In Diamondway the diamond expresses indestructibility and its outstanding qualities of joy and compassion. Dorje or Vajra is a ritual subject in Diamondway, expressing the method. It is used in combination with the bell, because method and wisdom are inseparable. A Dorje can have nine, five or three spokes. The spokes of a peaceful Dorje meets at the tips. The spokes of a wrathful Dorje are slightly stilted. The upper part of the spokes of a five-spokes Dorje represent the five wisdoms. 

Dorje Chang 
 [Skt: Vajradhara, Diamond Holder] Tantric form of Buddha Shakyamuni, in the Kagyu Lineage (and other lineages) regarded as primordial buddha, the essence of all Buddha aspects and origin of all Tantric transmission lineages; when appearing in the center of the refuge tree, expression of the enlightened state of the Teacher 

 Dorje Drollö 
 Diamond Paunch 

 Dorje Pamo 
 Red Wisdom 

 Dorje Purbha 
 Diamond Dagger 

 Dorje Sempa
 Diamond Mind 

 Dorje Thegpa 
 Diamond Way 

 Dream Meditation [Tib. Milam] One of the Six Teachings of Naropa. 

 Drime Shenyen [Skt. Vima mitra] was born into a housekeeper's family in West-India. Although he preceded Yeshe Do((Jnana Sutra) to China, his studies with Palgji Senge were less profound, and he eventually completed his studies as Palgji Senge's student. After his teacher Shri Singha died, Drime Shenyen became the teacher to an Indian king for 20 years and subsequently practised for another seven years in a cemetery. The Tibetan king Trisong Detsen (Phowa Lineage), wanting to establish the Dharma in Tibet, invited Drime Shenyen to Tibet. He accepted. The king, Guru Rinpoche and Drime Shenyen were instrumental in bringing Buddhism to Tibet. The most essential teachings that Drime Shenyen had brought to Tibet were called Vima Nyingthig in his honour. After having spent 13 years in Tibet, Drime Shenyen went to China to the Wu T'ai Chan mountain, where he realized the rainbow-body transformation. It is said that he will be living and emanating in this, for ordinary human beings unrecognizable form, as long as Buddhism exists in the world. 

 Dschampel Shenyen 
 (Skt. Manjushrimitra) was born into a Brahman family. He was a scholar. In a vision from Manjushri he received a prophecy: "If you want to reach enlightenment during your lifetime, go to Sitavana." According to the prophecy he met Garab Dorje (Phowa Lineage) there and studied the Dharma with him for 75 years. After the death of his teacher he started categorizing the teachings and meditated for 109 years in Sosadvipa, another cemetery, west of Bodhgaya. The extremely long lifespan that was attributed to him and many other teachers in that epoch could be variously explained - there was a tradition whereby every 6 months were counted as one year, and also many of the great masters had reached long-living realization through their practice. 

 Dukyi Khorlo 
 Wheel of Time 

 Dudul Dorje 
 [1733 - 1797] The thirteenth Karmapa, Dudul Dorje, was born at Champa Drongsar in South Tibet, and once located by Situpa, brought to Tsurphu at the age of five. In a further escalation of the sectarian politics of the time, the then ruler of Tibet, the seventh Dalai Lama, Kalzang Gyatso, with his prime minister, Sonam Topgyal, instituted a rule that all government officials must be Gelugpa. As a consequence of this, the Dalai Lama's approval of the new Karmapa incarnation was required. Finally, though, the thirteenth Karmapa and the ninth Shamarpa, Kunchok Jungnay, were enthroned. The Karmapa received full teachings from Situpa, but the Shamarpa only lived for eight years, precipitating another controversy. Subsequently, Dudul Dorje and Situpa, once again helped by Kato Rigdzin Tsewang Norbu, recognised Shamarpa's reincarnation in a younger brother of the fourth Panchen Lama, Palden Yeshe. The seventh Gyaltsap Rinpoche (1699-1765), however, had already installed a son of the wealthy Ger Namsayling family as reincarnation, with the approval of Shamarpa's monks at Yangpachen monastery, his principal seat in Tibet. The dispute eventually reached the courts, where it was decided that the Karmapa had indeed located the true incarnation. 

 White Umbrella 

 Dusum Chenpa 
 [1110 - 1193] Born the son of a practising Buddhist in Ratay in East Tibet, Dusum Khyenpa received his first dharma teachings from his father, and continued his education with other Buddhist teachers of the region until his twentieth year. Then he moved to Central Tibet where he spent the next twelve years in meditation and in study with famous scholars, among them Kyabpa Chokyi Senge, and Patsab Lotsawa Nyima Trag. At the age of thirty he was given Kagyu teachings by Gampopa; he was farther connected with the lineage by teachings he received from Rechungpa and from other students of Milarepa. The depth of his practice was such that he developed siddhis (powers) that enabled him to visit the sacred sites of the Diamond Way in India. At one of these, Udhiyana, dakinis shared their wisdom teachings with him. At forty-four, he left Central Tibet to return to the region of his birth, and spent the thirty-nine years until his death in establishing three thriving monasteries, sharing the Kagyu teachings, and training his students. Of these, he chose Drogon Rechen to be the next lineage-holder. 

 Dzog chen, Dzogchen, Dzogpa Chenpo 
 Maha Ati


 Eightfold Path, The Noble 
 The eightfold path combines the means leading to enlightenment. Firstly it’s important to developwisdom, i.e. to overcome ignorance. Secondly one should act in a way to build up positive Karma and to reduce negative Karma. Items 6, 7 and 8 describe the meaningful handling one’s own consciousness. Developing wisdom 1. Understanding how suffering emerges, what are the causes of suffering und how to abandon suffering. 2. Thinking, to convert the recognized into action. Ignorance, hatred, attachment, jealousy, and pride (disturbing emotions) no longer determine our feeling and our actions. Right action 3. Right speech: Not to lie, not to talk about others in a bad manner, not to talk nonsense. 4. Right limits of action: abandon actions that harm others. 5. Right livelihood: Leading a life that is determined by wisdom and compassion. Working with mind 6. Right efforts: Raise energy and to meditate on the indestructible nature of mind. 7. Right mindfulness: Not to forget the object of concentration 8. Right profound absorption: holding mind in one place again an again and to develop the timeless qualities of mind by means of meditation. 

 [Skt. Nirmanakaya] For the benefit of other beings a Buddha can manifest in many different forms. He does this due to his compassion. The most perfect of these forms is the so called emanation state of a Buddha. It has the 32 main characteristics and 80 minor characteristics of perfection. Is associated with the experience of non-conditioned compassion. 

 Disturbing Emotions 

 [Tib.Wang] A Ceremony which introduces the practitioner to the powerfield of a certain Buddha aspect. It may be given as a blessing to establish a bond to the teacher and to purify obstacles on the way to enlightenment. Or it is given at the start of a practice. One also needs a Lung, a reading of the text, and a Thri, the instructions on how to use it. The effectiveness of these methods in developing one's awareness cannot be overestimated. 

 [Tib. Tongpanyi, Skt. Shunyata] The fact that nothing outer or inner exists through or in itself. Everything arises from conditions, the ultimate nature of which is the potential of space. 

 Enlightened Mind 
 [Tib. Chang Chub Kyi Sem, Skt. Bodhicitta] Attitude of a Bodhisattva, basis of Mahayana. It is the enlightened expression of minds clearness. Is expirienced when mind realizes its reachness of possibilities. Manifests in many Buddha forms. Has two aspects: the relative means perfecting ourselves through the six liberating actions for the benefit of all beings. The absolute is spontaneous and effortless activity without thought or hesitation. The experience of subject, object and action as a totality makes this intuitive state automatic. 

 Complete enlightenment is a state of realization in which the most subtle traces of ignorance about the nature of reality are eliminated and highest wisdom - the state of omniscience - is attained; it is sometimes called "the embodiment of the Three Kayas". 

 Imagination of a meditation form, especially of a Buddha aspect, as an expression of the enlightenedqualities of mind. 


 [sanskr. Rupakaya] Joy-state and Emanation-state 

 Form Realm 
 Beings of the Form Realm are free from the attachment present in the desire realm. But they still adhere to a form. They only suffer from their death and from being born in the lower realms. This happens when there is no karma left to support this existence. This realm is subdivided into four levels of meditative concentration: 1. the first level is characterised through contemplation, analysis, bliss and happiness 2. the second level is characterised through bliss and happiness 3. the third level is characterised through happiness 4. the fourth level is characterised through detachment from contemplation, analysis, bliss and happiness. 

 Formless Realm 
 Beings of the Formless Realm are free from attachment and exist free from location and form. They only suffer from their death and from being born in the lower realms. This happens when there is no karma left to support this existence. This realm is subdivided into four levels of meditative concentration: Infinite space Infinite consciousness Nothing whatever Neither discernment nor no discernment A birth in the Formless Realm will take place after achieving the same state of meditative concentration (Samadhi) during meditation in the former existence. One enjoys this state of Samadhi a state without any sufferings. But keeping this state without developing Vipasyana doesn't lead to Liberation, but to a birth in the Formless Realm. One can remain in this Realm for millions of years, it is very pleasant but of no benefit. 

 Four Noble Truths, The 
 They are the basic teaching of the Buddha: There is suffering There is a cause to suffering There is an end to suffering There is a path to the end to suffering 


 [1079 - 1153] He was the first monk of the Karma-Kagyü lineage. It is said that Gampopa in his former lives was a disciple of Buddha Kasyapa and Buddha Shakyamuni. In the days of Buddha Shakyamuni his name was Candraprabha Kumara. When the Buddha asked who of his students will teach the Samadhiraja and Candrapradipa-Sutra in the future when times will get harder, Gampopa said that he will do that. In two Sutras Buddha made a prophecy of the appearance of the monk-doctor in the northern land of the snow - in Tibet. Gampopa was born in 1079 in a Nyingma family. His father was a doctor and he became one too. He also received a lot of Dharma teachings. At the age of 22 he married and he had two children. Some years later his son and daughter died during an epidemic. Shortly after this his wife died too. Due to this he decided to get ordained and he became a monk of the Kadampa tradition. He received the teachings of Atisha and of the Tantras of the Kadampa tradition. It is said that he could stay 13 days in Samadhi but he didn't find the true insight into the nature of mind. At the age of 32 he first heard the name of Milarepa and he longed to meet him. Despite the objections of his teachers he left the monastery and he finally met Milarepa in the mountains. Milarepa already had told his students that the holder of his lineage will soon appear. In the next 10 Years Gampopa received all the transmissions of the Kagyu Lineage and he realisedMahamudra. According to Milarepas order he left and settled down in Gampo Dar, near Dhagpo in south Tibet. That's where his name comes from: "Gampopa - the man from mount Gampo". Gampopa founded a monastery in the Kagyu tradition. He had 51.600 students, among them about 500 Yogis, living in caves and a retreat center around the monastery. His foremost student was Dusum Chenpa the first Karmapa. Karmapa and three other students founded the "four great" schools of the Kagyü tradition. 

 Garab Dorje 
 (Skt. Prahevajra), Nirmanakaya (Phowa Lineage). The "State of compassion" (Tulku) is the manifestation of enlightenment in the physical realm. It is there to help those beings who have not yet reached the level of a Bodhisattva. The first human lineage-holder of the Dzog chen was the Nirmanakaya Garab Dorje, an emanation of the Buddha Diamond Mind. He was born a son of a royal family in Uddiyana, the land of the Dakini. Even as a child he already showed many special signs which made it very clear that he was by no means an ordinary boy. It is said that he entered into a philosophical debate with 500 scholars and won, at age seven and that without ever having studied himself. Afterwards he meditated in a hut on top of a mountain until his 32nd birthday. It was here that he received the direct transmissions of Diamond-Mind and realized his Buddhahood. Together with the Dakinis he spent three years recording those teachings. He meditated and taught for the rest of his life in Sitavana, a famous old cemetery Northeast of Bodhgaya. In old India cemeteries were considered to be powerful places, inhabited by Dakinis, ghosts, wild animals and Yogis. The cemetery offered them the opportunity for undisturbed practice and also served as a daily reminder of impermanence. It is here that Garab Dorje met his "main-pupil" Dschampel Shenyen. 

 The latest of the four great lineages (schools) of Tibetan Buddhism. This "reformed school" was founded at the end of the 14. century be Je Tsongkhapa. The school emphasises scholarship and right conduct. Leader is the Ganden Tripa Rinpoche the throne keeper of the monastery Ganden. Although they have some Tantras they don’t accept the first transmission of Buddhism to Tibet by the Nyingma lineage. The Gelug school presents itself often belonging more to Mahayana than to Diamondway. 

 Gendun Rinpoche 
 Lama Gendun Rinpoche was the meditation master and spiritual director of Dhagpo Kagyu Ling (France). He spent more than thirty years in solitary retreat and was then sent to Europe by the 16. Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje. He passed away in October 1997. more 

 Gesture of Touching the Earth 
 Touching Earth Gesture. 

 Great Black 
 [Tib. Nagpo Chenpo, Skt. Mahakala] The protection power of all Buddhas. 

 Great Perfection 
 Maha Ati 

 Great Way 
 [Tib. Theg Chen, Skt. Mahayana, Lit.: The Great Vehicle] Practioneers of the Great Way have developed the whish to attain enlightenment to liberate all sentient beings from suffering. Is also called Bodhisattva-way. Its basis is the development of compassion and all-embracing wisdom. It is distinguished into Sutra- and Mantra-Way. 

 Green Liberatrice 

 Inhabitant of the least painful of the Six Realms of Samsara. The lives of gods, while long and marked by sensuous bliss, are ended in great sorrow as they foresee their future lower rebirth. There are gods of the Desire, Form and Formless Realms. 

 Literally "to meditate". Third phase of practice, which follows receipt of teachings and instruction and effort made to comprehend them. Gompa is the actual pursuit of meditational practice. 

 Guru Rinpoche 
 [ca. 730 - 810] [Tib. Pema Jungne, Skt. Padmasambhava, Lit. the Lotus-born] The probably Afghan yogi who brought the full cycle of Buddhism to Tibet in the eighth century. Guru Rinpoche is an emanation of the Buddha Amithaba. From 755 onwards, he spent more than 55 years in Tibet. He manifested an exciting life and countless wonders and is highly revered in the three non-reformed schools of Tibetan Buddhism. He founded the Nyingma lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. His energy-field is especially present on the tenth day after new moon. (Phowa Lineage). 

 Guru Tschober 
 [1196 - 1231] Guru Tschober was the son of the younger brother of Khepa Nyibum (Phowa Lineage). Until his seventh birthday he seemed to be a rather stupid child, but then, suddenly, he showed great aspects of wisdom. He lived with his uncle Khepa Nyibum until age 18 and received his complete transmissions. Later in his life he studied with the famous Sakya Pandita. He became known for his sharp intellect and his scholarly wisdom. It is said that he had a vision of each of the Buddha aspects that he meditated on. 

 Guru Yoga 
 [Tib. Lami Naljor] Three Lights Meditation. 

 Gyalwa Gyamtso 
 Almighty Ocean. 

 Gyelwa Shangton [1097 - 1167] Already as an adolescent Shangton studied the Dharma intensively. He had visions ofLoving Eyes, the Liberatrice and other Buddha-Aspects. Dorje Legpa especially appeared to him on several occasions, asking Shangton to accompany him so that he would reach enlightenment. Dorje Legpa protected him in many dangerous situations. In Chimphu he discovered different Dharma-jewels ofDrime Shenyen 's (Vimalamitra). Gyelwa Shanton had also visions of Drime Shenyen. He received the complete transmission of the highest teachings from Jetsun Senge Wangtschug (Phowa Lineage). As a sign that he had reached realization, his body did not throw a shadow anymore. 

 Illusory Body Meditation 



 General collective term for a male meditation aspect. In particular a term for Chakrasamvara, the "Buddha Of Highest Joy" 

 He Vajra 
 [tib. Kye dor je] Oh Diamond. 

 Heart Sutra 
 The extremely concise statement of the doctrine of Emptiness, regarded as the heart or essence of the vast Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom) Literature. In many Great Way traditions, the sutra is chanted regularly. 

 Highest Joy 
 [Tib. Khorlo Demchok, Skt. Chakrasamvara, Lit. Wheel of Highest Joy] Radiant transpersonal joy which is the true nature of space. Blue skin, wrathful. May appear alone or in union with Red Wisdom. Transforms attachment. Important meditation form of the Kagyu-lineage. 

 A term exclusively used from the perspective of the Mahayana to denote the fact that the followers of this vehicle lay emphasis on their individual liberation from the cycle of existence, not so much on the benefit of others. Since the contents of this vehicle in great parts do not differ very much from those of the Mahayana, it actually should be called Theravada, the Vehicle or Way of the Older Ones, as the followers of this vehicle calls themselves like that. 

 [Tib. Tamdrin, Skt. Hayagriva] Protector of the pure land of Highest Joy. Hung A seed or essence syllable often used in Mantras.

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